Verifying Signature

Messages can be signed off chain and then verified on chain using a smart contract.

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
pragma solidity ^0.6.10;

/* Signature Verification

How to Sign and Verify
# Signing
1. Create message to sign
2. Hash the message
3. Sign the hash (off chain, keep your private key secret)

# Verify
1. Recreate hash from the original message
2. Recover signer from signature and hash
3. Compare recovered signer to claimed signer

*/

contract VerifySignature {
    /* 1. Unlock MetaMask account
    ethereum.enable()
    */

    /* 2. Get message hash to sign
    getMessageHash(
        0x14723A09ACff6D2A60DcdF7aA4AFf308FDDC160C,
        123,
        "coffee and donuts",
        1
    )

    hash = 0xcf36ac4f97dc10d91fc2cbb20d718e94a8cbfe0f82eaedc6a4aa38946fb797cd
    */
    function getMessageHash(
        address _to, uint _amount, string memory _message, uint _nonce
    )
        public pure returns (bytes32)
    {
        return keccak256(abi.encodePacked(_to, _amount, _message, _nonce));
    }

    /* 3. Sign message hash
    web3.personal.sign(hash, web3.eth.defaultAccount, console.log)

    Signature will be different for different accounts
    0x993dab3dd91f5c6dc28e17439be475478f5635c92a56e17e82349d3fb2f166196f466c0b4e0c146f285204f0dcb13e5ae67bc33f4b888ec32dfe0a063e8f3f781b
    */
    function getEthSignedMessageHash(bytes32 _messageHash) public pure returns (bytes32) {
        /*
        Signature is produced by signing a keccak256 hash with the following format:
        "\x19Ethereum Signed Message\n" + len(msg) + msg
        */
        return keccak256(abi.encodePacked("\x19Ethereum Signed Message:\n32", _messageHash));
    }

    /* 4. Verify signature
    signer = 0xB273216C05A8c0D4F0a4Dd0d7Bae1D2EfFE636dd
    to = 0x14723A09ACff6D2A60DcdF7aA4AFf308FDDC160C
    amount = 123
    message = "coffee and donuts"
    nonce = 1
    signature =
        0x993dab3dd91f5c6dc28e17439be475478f5635c92a56e17e82349d3fb2f166196f466c0b4e0c146f285204f0dcb13e5ae67bc33f4b888ec32dfe0a063e8f3f781b
    */
    function verify(
        address _signer,
        address _to, uint _amount, string memory _message, uint _nonce,
        bytes memory signature
    )
        public pure returns (bool)
    {
        bytes32 messageHash = getMessageHash(_to, _amount, _message, _nonce);
        bytes32 ethSignedMessageHash = getEthSignedMessageHash(messageHash);

        return recoverSigner(ethSignedMessageHash, signature) == _signer;
    }

    function recoverSigner(bytes32 _ethSignedMessageHash, bytes memory _signature)
        public pure returns (address)
    {
        (bytes32 r, bytes32 s, uint8 v) = splitSignature(_signature);

        return ecrecover(_ethSignedMessageHash, v, r, s);
    }

    function splitSignature(bytes memory sig)
        public pure returns (bytes32 r, bytes32 s, uint8 v)
    {
        require(sig.length == 65, "invalid signature length");

        assembly {
            /*
            First 32 bytes stores the length of the signature

            add(sig, 32) = pointer of sig + 32
            effectively, skips first 32 bytes of signature

            mload(p) loads next 32 bytes starting at the memory address p into memory
            */

            // first 32 bytes, after the length prefix
            r := mload(add(sig, 32))
            // second 32 bytes
            s := mload(add(sig, 64))
            // final byte (first byte of the next 32 bytes)
            v := byte(0, mload(add(sig, 96)))
        }

        // implicitly return (r, s, v)
    }
}

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